Javascript Redirect With Authorization Header

htpasswd files within Apache. If the client included 'openid' as SCOPE in his request, additional keys are included in the response:. For example when you make an AJAX call to a secure service and without a valid authorization token. The header value must match the OAuth service definition in the registry that is linked to the client id. AMX Authorization Header. Long before bearer authorization, this header was used for Basic authentication. More features will be added to the libraries over time. I open my Rest API URL, and i can see the call, somes redirect to be authenticated by Salesforce, and finally the result (and i'am logged). When the user is signed in and redirected to another page, the service worker will be able to inject the ID token in the header before the redirect completes. Adding Redirect Headers 09/26/2016; 2 minutes to read; In this article. During unit testing, we want our unit tests to run quickly and have no external dependencies so we don’t want to send XHR or JSONP requests to a real server. HostMonster Web Hosting Help How To Code a PHP Redirect - PHP Header Redirect Redirection in PHP can be done using the header() function. This interface represents only the most basic contract for HTTP request execution. The element of the element adds an HTTP response header to the collection of custom HTTP headers that Internet Information Services (IIS) 7 will add to HTTP redirects. There is a lot of documentation about this authentication method in the internet, e. # re: A WebAPI Basic Authentication MessageHandler @Johnny - you can check the username in the Identity of the request - it's set there. php [QSA,E=HTTP_AUTHORIZATION:%{HTTP:Authorization}] The proper solution is to pass the required header directly to PHP. So why are HTTP interceptors useful? There are many reasons, but one common use case is to automatically attach authentication information to requests. "A redirection in the HTTP protocol doesn't support adding any headers to the target location. However, it is useful for setting if the client is accepting trailer fields in a chunked transfer coding using the "trailers" value. As you can see the pages redirect with the correct 302 status code. If you add --location, curl will follow the 302 redirect and will use the cookies (--cookie-jar is still required, unfortunately). Sandbox; Configuration Center; Sandbox Signup. Your application should verify that the state parameter matches the request to prevent CSRF attac. 0 token using HTTP POST. For example, a redirect protocol handler can inspect the response code and return true if it is a redirect response code. Headers only make sense if the receiving party can interpret it correctly. With the help of the HTTP filter it is possible to block specific HTTP Header. 307 Temporary Redirect. No Angular, React, Vue, or even jQuery. My question is, In my case, My redirect uri will be expecting some custom headers (headers will be constant key-value pairs). Once displayed on the page use the meta refresh tag or the JavaScript redirect. When using authorization codes, a client application will redirect a user to your server where they will either approve or deny the request to issue an access token to the client. Firebase automatically creates your firebase. Request options control various aspects of a request including, headers, query string parameters, timeout settings, the body of a request, and much more. Overview For authorizing users within a browser-based application, the best current practice is to o Use the OAuth 2. The Amazon S3 REST API uses the standard HTTP Authorization header to pass authentication information. htaccess is a very ancient configuration file that controls the Web Server running your website, and is one of the most powerful configuration files you will ever come across. 0 as the authentication method. OAuth2: When you are offering an application to your users which grants your server/application the right to operate the Smart Lock of a user. json file when you run the firebase init command. The element of the element adds an HTTP response header to the collection of custom HTTP headers that Internet Information Services (IIS) 7 will add to HTTP redirects. Registry included below. Redirect and also set some header like test, the browser will not forward this header to the site it is now redirecting. Shared components used by Firefox and other Mozilla software, including handling of Web content; Gecko, HTML, CSS, layout, DOM, scripts, images, networking, etc. Because this includes the header() function, be sure that you do not have any text sent to the browser before this code, or it will not work. erb view unless the action says otherwise. How to Use Base 64 Encoding The auth code and client credentials grants require the auth code to be passed in the Authorization header using base 64 encoding. Using this access token is fairly simple. It's also a safer and more secure way for people to give you access. aurelia-auth is a port of the great Satellizer library to ES6 and packaged as an Aurelia plugin. But there are many scenarios where you may need to use JavaScript to redirect or navigate to another URL. If you exceed the provided rate limit for a given endpoint, you will receive the 429 Too Many Requests response with the following message: Too many requests. This list can be used as a basis for crafting your own lists. In terms of LiveChat apps, authentication is when you check the user credentials to see if they are signed in. Besides, have you installed URL rewrite module? The only two feature could lead to 301 redirect could be http redirect and URL rewrite rule with 301 permanent redirect. Sending the bearer token to the client and setting it in javascript [Answered] RSS 4 replies Last post May 21, 2014 02:16 AM by danp276. I know how to send the computed hash in the HTTP Authorization Header, but my problem is how to send it in the Authorization Header each and every subsequent request after the user has logged in. Header authentication is an authentication method in the Qlik Sense environment which can be quite easily set up and therefore ideal for either a development environment or between trusted systems, but should definitely be used with caution. We fully covered method, headers and body in the chapter Fetch. draft-ietf-httpbis-rand-access-live-04 HTTP Random Access and Live Content. When the user is not authenticated, the server will automatically send a 302 redirect to a Login action and return a Login page. Calling to oauth2/default/v1/token with the following params: The returned code The code verifier used to create the code challenge grant_type=authorization_code redirect uri This call results: invalid_client: No client credentials found. See Chapter 4, "Protecting Resources with Policy Domains" for an overview. The end goal with all OAuth-based authorization is to retrieve the access token to be used in the HTTP request Authorization header (Authorization: Bearer ). Authorization. The OAuth 2. Sometimes the access to a web page or resource should be protected. The /oauth2/token endpoint gets the user's tokens. I'm going to perform following actions 1. With OAuth 2. I have a single page application that uses angular and im planning to redirect to the hangfire dashboard. JavaScript or browser-based apps; OAuth is a simple way to publish and interact with protected data. From the first page, I want to pass the username/password in how do I redirect from one page to another using javascript and/or jquery and basic authentication. It maintains a queue of pending requests for a given host and port, reusing a single socket connection for each until the queue is empty, at which time the socket is either destroyed or put into a pool where it is kept to be used again for requests to the same host and port. For starters it is my intention to deploy a web application on an https-port that requires client authentication. ExpressJS - Authentication - Authentication is a process in which the credentials provided are compared to those on file in a database of authorized users' information on a local operating. HTTP-redirect fetch. In some cases, like when your buyers are using a mobile device, you will want to redirect buyers to the Amazon authentication page within the same window, rather than presenting the buyer with a pop-up window. In version 5. Add another header to the request. HTTP Scripting 1. In some cases, like when your buyers are using a mobile device, you will want to redirect buyers to the Amazon authentication page within the same window, rather than presenting the buyer with a pop-up window. Here is the callback. JavaScript Redirect in a Single Page App (SPA) A core principle of Single Page Web Applications (SPA) is things that used to live on the server now live in the browser. It allows bad links to be traced for maintenance. My environment is as follows: IIS 6. Here, we are using 64 bit encoding format to encrypt the username/password. Our service is pretty standard and we want to serve JSON responses by default. microsoftonline. During a user's authentication, the redirect_uri request parameter is used as a callback URL. I have a single page application that uses angular and im planning to redirect to the hangfire dashboard. This tutorial will demonstrate the basic implementation steps to perform SMART on FHIR OAuth2 authorization and retrieve patient data from scratch without relying on a specialized SMART on FHIR client. Get an access token issued by calling our token endpoint and passing the authorization code from the previous call. Managing Clients. If you are trying to create a local application, here is a sample of how to handle authentication over localhost with Node. Click on the ON button, which will enable Authentication / Authorization for the selected web app. Except for POST requests and requests that are signed by using query parameters, all Amazon S3 operations use the Authorization request header to provide authentication information. Deployment target is iOS 11. AMX Authorization Header. I had a need to do basic authentication with JQuery (Not the most secure, I know, but some sites only accept this method). NET Framework has been a significant benefit to developers securing web-based applications. " I've been digging through the RFC standards and I can't find anything about this. jQuery just simply removed you from the pic and in return they saved users time. It keeps defaulting back to the root directory. To perform an HTTP-redirect fetch using request and response, with an optional CORS flag, run these steps: Let actualResponse be response, if response is not a filtered response, and response’s internal response otherwise. OAuth2 is an authentication protocol that is used to authenticate and authorize users in an application by using another service provider. A comprehensive set of strategies support authentication using a username and password, Facebook, Twitter, and more. Using OAuth2 with authorization codes is how most developers are familiar with OAuth2. The file name in a cache is a result of applying the MD5 function to the cache key. The issued access token will have an expiry, and it will be valid only for the scope for which the consent has been provided by the customer. then((result) => { // Redirect to profile page after sign-in. Process Overview of Scenario 1. On the other hand, response header. Search by year 3. SharePoint Online site redirects the browser back to the redirect URI that was specified when the app was registered in step. The header value must match the OAuth service definition in the registry that is linked to the client id. Along with the redirection, the authorization server sends an authorization code, representing the authorization. The following code opens a window with a status bar and no extra features. When the user is signed in and redirected to another page, the service worker will be able to inject the ID token in the header before the redirect completes. 2)The Redirect Filter intercepts various pages, checks the authentication parms, and may redirect to an appropriate page (usually a start page). When you are sending a Response. From the first page, I want to pass the username/password in how do I redirect from one page to another using javascript and/or jquery and basic authentication. You just re-share and respost other peoples work David. Login ok -> server authenticates and sends 302 redirect 3. If the JWT contains the. And you can get the new redirected url by reading the "Location" header of the HTTP response header. In Authorization Grant, this API returns a code (response_type=code) for clients implemented in a browser using a scripting language such as JavaScript. Measure, monetize, advertise and improve your apps with Yahoo tools. If left out, GitHub will redirect users to the callback URL configured in the OAuth Application settings. The forms that you create for form-based authentication only collect user credentials. Note : The “X-Ms-Apim-Tokens” header is also important, and I explain this later. Basic Profile. Next you need to open your azure web app, search for Authentication in the blade. Sending Authorization Header on handshake? #196. Here are the parameters used in the request: response. Likewise, if you provide the optional state parameter in the original redirect to /authenticate, it will be preserved and sent back to you. Start building amazing cross platform mobile, desktop, and Progressive Web Apps with the web tech you know and love today. body An object to merge with the body of every request; query An object to merge with the query parameters of every request; headers An object to merge with the headers of every request. Featured Post: Implement the OAuth 2. NET development community. php [QSA,E=HTTP_AUTHORIZATION:%{HTTP:Authorization}] The proper solution is to pass the required header directly to PHP. The Authorization header is cleared on auto-redirects and HttpWebRequest automatically tries to re-authenticate to the redirected location. Exchange the authorization_code for an access_token. And even better it's not as complicated as you might assume. This kind of attack can be prevented by ensuring the authorization URL is always loaded directly in a native browser, and not embedded in an iframe. I have a before header process that validate the session you are in and you should be handled by this process prior page rendering. I want to pass along a basic authentication "authorization" header with the request. The way a browser identifies itself is through the User-Agent header 4. HostMonster Web Hosting Help How To Code a PHP Redirect - PHP Header Redirect Redirection in PHP can be done using the header() function. That's it! So this article demonstrates how to add a custom authorization header to all HttpClient request in Angular 5. An HTTPS URI that the authorization server will redirect to after the initial authorization request is processed. (OK, I know there are a lot of APIs are using Oauth2. GitHub's Authorization Request At this point, the user will see Github's OAuth authorization prompt, illustrated above. net mvc using Forms Authentication. When you enter a username and password in this window, the browser sends another HTTP request, but this time it contains this header. In this section we are going to explain how to authenticate in Money Button using our API endpoints. Note: A tag cannot be placed within a , or another element. This helps assure that the client receiving the authorization response is the same as the client that initiated the authorization process. Access of REST API is given to HTTP request having auth token in the header. The MSAL library for JavaScript enables client-side JavaScript web applications, running in a web browser, to authenticate users using Azure AD work and school accounts (AAD), Microsoft personal accounts (MSA) and social identity providers like Facebook, Google, LinkedIn, Microsoft accounts, etc. 9/25/2019 - Removing totals counts from the queue users GET query Category: API Summary: The API endpoint to get members of a queue will change to improve performance and stability, but some fields will no longer be present in some cases. People always ask me why Implicit Flow was recommended in the first place if Authorization Code Flow is inherently more secure. We are almost there. Same issue as John, except I'm using Method 1. The client ID and scope are typically passed as query parameters with the redirect URI from where the authorization server must send a callback and the authentication code. All requests to the token endpoint must be authenticated - either pass client id and secret via Basic Authentication or add client_id and client_secret fields to the POST body. It will: Store the active user’s ID in the session, and let you log them in and out easily. See the documentation for each endpoint for specific authentication requireme. JWTs encode claims to be transmitted as a JSON object (as defined in RFC 4627 (Crockford, D. UI Router dynamic. proxyRequest. However, we discovered that when the server responds with a 302 redirect, WKWebview does not pass the cookies set by the server to the redirect URL. Redirect on client side means following steps: User request a Page using an URI, Server sent a page based on that. The client application uses the authorization code to make an unauthenticated API request to get an access token. This identifies to the authorization server that this application is recognized as being able to make requests for tokens. The result is an authorization code, which your product can exchange for an access token. As you can see, it brings in a number of dependencies and then starts a web server that listens for requests on port 3000. If the nation's admin accepts your request, we will redirect him/her to your redirect_uri with a code parameter in its query string, so a request will come through like this:. Groups and / or users are then given (multiple) permissions. Test your site, it should now redirect from HTTP to HTTPS. Finish by clicking create. A redirect response would come with a "Location" header. Except for POST requests and requests that are signed by using query parameters, all Amazon S3 operations use the Authorization request header to provide authentication information. It handles the common tasks of logging in, logging out, and remembering your users’ sessions over extended periods of time. AJAX requests, after all, are just like any other HTTP request. URL redirection, also known as URL forwarding, is a technique to give a page, a form or a whole Web application, more than one URL address. 307 Temporary Redirect. You must configure your rewrite rules to use the X-Forwarded-Proto header and redirect only HTTP clients. We fully covered method, headers and body in the chapter Fetch. Ambassador Pro has been tested with Keycloak, Auth0, Okta, and UAA although other OAuth/OIDC-compliant identity providers should work. Microsoft Authentication Library for JavaScript Preview token in the HTTP Authorization header. Place the generated OAuth client ID under "client_id". The element of the element adds an HTTP response header to the collection of custom HTTP headers that Internet Information Services (IIS) 7 will add to HTTP redirects. Here are the parameters used in the request: response. It provides visualization capabilities on. net code but it does not appear to work I've tested the url and token manually an they work fine, but my. Usage Considerations Configuring an Anti-Spoofing Policy Example Policies Anti-Spoofing Policy to Allow Spoofing Based on IP Anti-Spoofing Policy to Block Unwanted Spoofed Emails Spoofing is the forgery of email headers so messages appear to come from someone other than the actual source. In terms of LiveChat apps, authentication is when you check the user credentials to see if they are signed in. Experience is the best teacher, but no one said it has to be your experience As a newbie just starting in tech, one of the most challenging decisions you have to make is choosing a tech stack to learn, you'll probably be thinking of choosing web, and you still ha. Learn, download, and discuss IIS7 and more on the official Microsoft IIS site for the IIS. I am getting really confused as when to use AAM and when to use header. Please capture and. If the parse is successful, it returns the value to the requesting script. The original random string is known as the code_verifier, and the hashed version is known as the code_challenge. A common non-working idea is that you could replace those redirect an AJAX request from the client javascript to the authorization server and get your authorization grant. redirect_uri. Previously used lock javascript prior to the recent forced deprecation, worked perfectly then. Hi, Thank you for bringing this to our attention. If the user's authentication but the "redirect. Another function of Forms authentication was that when the application issued a 401 unauthorized HTTP status code, Forms authentication would convert the response into a 302 redirect to the application’s login page. To perform an HTTP-redirect fetch using request and response, with an optional CORS flag, run these steps: Let actualResponse be response, if response is not a filtered response, and response’s internal response otherwise. There are many reasons you may decide to forgo the framework bloat for vanilla JavaScript. Move the JavaScript to after the HTML body for HTTP-Post to support older browsers. 0) The procedures are basically like below: 1. If the client included 'openid' as SCOPE in his request, additional keys are included in the response:. By continuing to use Pastebin, you agree to our use of cookies as described in the Cookies Policy. Using Menus. The following JavaScript snippet shows how to initiate the authorization flow in JavaScript without using the Google APIs Client Library for JavaScript. Create Authorization Code or Access Token. I am having difficulty finding straightf. The approach used in this article does not use any client side cookies for Authentication and Authorization. referrer, referrerPolicy. If provided, the redirect URL's host and port must exactly match the callback URL. I'm building a mobile app that uses javascript and oauth for authorization and access to Reddit. 0 in your app is to use one of those libraries. sendImmediately defaults to true, which causes a basic or bearer authentication header to be sent. A Content-Type header will be present if the MIME type can be guessed. The server sets the authentication token in a cookie and returns it to the JavaScript application The JavaScript application makes a request for some protected data, sending the authentication token in a custom header The server validates the token and then returns the data. The end goal with all OAuth-based authorization is to retrieve the access token to be used in the HTTP request Authorization header (Authorization: Bearer ). request_pieces, but then I need to use "htp. Check if the specified url is correct. This parameter is for the authorization code received from the authorization server which will be in the query string parameter "code" in this request. URL capture and redirect. I am having issues with the Auth0 callback. Simple Authentication for Angular. URL Redirect Whitelist LDAP authentication with HiveServer2 and Impala can be enabled by setting If the HttpOnly flag is included in the HTTP response header. A common problem for developers is a browser to refuse access to a remote resource. The following diagram provides an overview of the cookie authentication process in scenario 1. p" within a loop to print the called page --while I just need to redirect the browser to it. On the other hand, response header. Header authentication is an authentication method in the Qlik Sense environment which can be quite easily set up and therefore ideal for either a development environment or between trusted systems, but should definitely be used with caution. While pages can be secured server-side, local caching by browsers and proxy servers may allow a user to review information even after they have logged out. microsoftonline. 0 is a simple identity layer on top of the OAuth 2. header and following the redirect, and being denied. Authorization checks whether a user is allowed to perform an action or has access to some functionality. By continuing to use Pastebin, you agree to our use of cookies as described in the Cookies Policy. Exchange the authorization_code for an access_token. Passport is authentication middleware for Node. Demonstration Of Frame Busting Javascript And X-Frame Options Header. redirect_uri. For entity-header fields, both sender and recipient refer to either the client or the server, depending on who sends and who receives the entity. Kibana is an open source data visualization plugin for Elasticsearch. When using authorization codes, a client application will redirect a user to your server where they will either approve or deny the request to issue an access token to the client. For example:. For public read-only and anonymous resources, such as getting image info, looking up user comments, etc. Prevent Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF) using ASP. You could also control the client cache response header in site level-> response headers->set common headers. Recently I am developing a connectors which using Oauth2. Google Sign-In for server-side apps To use Google services on behalf of a user when the user is offline, you must use a hybrid server-side flow where a user authorizes your app on the client side using the JavaScript API client and you send a special one-time authorization code to your server. The Authentication Header. The file name in a cache is a result of applying the MD5 function to the cache key. post() implements the Promise interface, giving it all the properties, methods, and behavior of a Promise (see Deferred object for more information). This document assumes that you're familiar with HTML and general networking. If the redirect URL was back to the same domain as the original request, the client (presumably a browser) would automatically re-send the original "Authorization" header. NET just inserts a meta refresh header in the HTML code that is sent to the browser, so both these approaches have the same final result. – Authorization code may leak to external parties through the HTTP Referer header if there are third party components in the redirect URI page. Ah the beauty of a self made blunder - I managed to bungle up a tag's path in web. Now let’s explore the rest of capabilities. HTTP Basic authentication (BA) implementation is the simplest technique for enforcing access controls to web resources because it does not require cookies, session identifiers, or login pages; rather, HTTP Basic authentication uses standard fields in the HTTP header. Using this access token is fairly simple. We fully covered method, headers and body in the chapter Fetch. Here, we are using 64 bit encoding format to encrypt the username/password. The Authentication API is subject to rate limiting. GitHub's Authorization Request At this point, the user will see Github's OAuth authorization prompt, illustrated above. POST /oauth/oauth20/token. People always ask me why Implicit Flow was recommended in the first place if Authorization Code Flow is inherently more secure. { "name": "OAuth Tutorial FriendBlock",. The user can now send a request to the cleverbridge GraphQL API. com via AJAX, and sends Bob's login and password. And so we have ways in PHP to set these response headers using the header function. Appears to be the preference of Microsoft and plenty of standards (like SCIM) 2) As a query parameter. How do I redirect to another webpage?. " I've been digging through the RFC standards and I can't find anything about this. In Authorization Grant, this API returns a code (response_type=code) for clients implemented in a browser using a scripting language such as JavaScript. Basically yes, and the user is directed to login. Explains how to implement a Single Sign-On (SSO) solution using Basic authentication and Internet Explorer clients that have applied the MS04-004 (KB 832894) security update, which prevents passing credentials through the URL. Managing Clients. The second special case is the "Location:" header. The purpose of this tutorial is to showcase the capabilities of passport-ping-oauth2 within a basic Node application, and it will teach you how to leverage the module within your own Node applications. The user's JavaScript client retrieves the access token, which it resubmits to the identity server, along with the Authorization header and Bearer scheme that are contained within the JavaScript file (see step 1 above). After login, click the link "See how Authentication & Authorization handled for Ajax. This prevents RSA Access Manager from resetting the basic authentication header between the first request and the 303 redirect. htaccess is a powerful and ancient configuration file for Apache that lets you setup Password Protection, 301 Redirects, Rewrites and all access of HTTP. I don't have much experience with JavaScript and I'm trying to just use JQuery to pass authorization headers to HTTP requests. This algorithm is used by HTML’s navigate algorithm in addition to HTTP fetch above. This article is focused on authentication which refers (in short) to determining that somebody is who he claims to be. A SPA is a single HTML page—index. But I'm stuck on the end of the authorization guide. Using OAuth2 with authorization codes is how most developers are familiar with OAuth2. Web server applications can use service accounts in conjunction with user authorization. Tutorials - Simple Authorization App Overview. When the user is not authenticated, the server will automatically send a 302 redirect to a Login action and return a Login page. Select Request headers and enter “debug” with value 1 (just using these values for the sake of this tutorial). Many HTTP/REST libraries will handle the formatting and encoding for basic authentication requests, though not all do. When the user is signed in and redirected to another page, the service worker will be able to inject the ID token in the header before the redirect completes. I currently have a web application that I've set up which uses. # re: A WebAPI Basic Authentication MessageHandler @Johnny - you can check the username in the Identity of the request - it's set there. This header can be set by the client or by the proxy. config which caused some very unpredictable behavior that essentiall failed all forms authentication requests. The limits differ per endpoint. Hosted Login and API Authentication for Python Apps. Grant types As of August 2015, Optimizely supports both the Authorization Code and Implicit grant types, as described in the OAuth 2. 0 is much easier to use than previous schemes and developers can start using the Instagram API almost immediately. When an application needs to log out an authenticated user, it should set the expiration time of the authentication session cookie to -1 and redirect the client to the IdP logout endpoint (if the IdP supports one). One place in the article where I mention authorization often is the "Authorization header" which is defined by HTTP protocol. Bearer distinguishes the type of Authorization you're using, so it's important. In the Google Cloud Platform Console, go to the Identity-Aware Proxy page. 5, all of jQuery's Ajax methods return a superset of the XMLHTTPRequest object. By modifying untrusted URL input to a malicious site, an attacker may successfully launch a phishing scam and steal user credentials. The HTTP WWW-Authenticate response header defines the authentication method that should be used to gain access to a resource. Best Practices for Speeding Up Your Web Site. Redirect and also set some header like test, the browser will not forward this header to the site it is now redirecting. Tutorials - Simple Authorization App Overview. A common problem for developers is a browser to refuse access to a remote resource. Incorporating JavaScript in the HTML Header Attribute One way to include JavaScript into your application is to add it to the HTML Header attribute of the page. In practice, this means that an application can't put custom authentication information into the Authorization header if it is possible to encounter redirection. The Background. Using the HTTP Authorization header is the most common method of providing authentication information. The "Authorization" header provides API access. The result is an authorization code, which your product can exchange for an access token. How to use it is written here: Basic access authentication. This article is focused on authentication which refers (in short) to determining that somebody is who he claims to be. But there are many scenarios where you may need to use JavaScript to redirect or navigate to another URL. HTTP Authentication. That's an issue when a request to an internal service respond with a signed S3 URL in the Location header. net C#) to website URL and pass the authentication header to auto login to the website. The redirect_uri you register for a given client will be used to validate future oauth2 requests. Any suggestions on how I could pre-authorize a session with the Basic Authorization which would have been provided by the users?. App Authorization: Spotify authorizes your app to access the Spotify Platform (APIs, SDKs and Widgets). OAuth2 is an authentication protocol that is used to authenticate and authorize users in an application by using another service provider.